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Задание 10


  1. Danger for space missions                                                                            5. Entertaining worker
  2. Costly problem of space junk                                                                       6. Rapid transportation
  3. How it all started                                                                                              7. Looking for easier ways
  4. Do-It-Yourself device                                                                                      8. Tiny but informative



A. Launched in December 1961, OSCAR 1 was the world’s first non-governmental satellite. It was built for only 63 dollars by a group of amateur radio operators and operated for nearly 20 days, testing radio reception from space. OSCAR 1 marked the beginning of a program that continues to this day. The program has led to innovations in spacecraft design and enabled radio enthusiasts to participate in satellite communications.


B. Having a small satellite launched into orbit might sound strange, but over the past few decades a unique class of satellites has been created that seems ideal for space operations: CubeSats. The most common CubeSat is a 10 cm cube. Within their compact bodies these miniature satellites are able to place sensors and communications receivers/transmitters that enable operators to study the Earth from space, as well as space around the Earth.


C. A CubeSat is a small satellite that weighs just 1 kilogram. The design of these satellites has been so simplified that almost anyone can build them. More than that, the instructions are available for free online. They are quite easy to understand. After you build one, you can also test and launch it. CubeSats can be combined to make larger satellites if you need to carry heavier weights. Is it expensive to build one? Typically less than $5,000.


D. Australian scientists have successfully tested a new kind of jet aircraft that can move seven times faster than the speed of sound. It can bring hypersonic or ultra-fast travel a step closer to reality. Hypersonic jet engine that could be used to fly people from Sydney to London in just two hours is planned to make its first flight in 2018, according to the Australian scientists and engineers working on the project.


E. A robot-cook, which is created by the programmers of the company-resident of the business incubator of Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, will be able to replace workers of fast food restaurants in making hot dogs, candy floss and other foods. The authors of the idea believe that the robot will be popular with restaurant-keepers, especially as a marketing tool to attract customers.


F.. Since the birth of space flight in 1957, the number of man-made objects orbiting the Earth has grown every year. There are now more than 15,000 such objects larger than 10cm, at least those that we know of. Even very small particles can pose a risk to spacecraft, because of the high relative speeds at which they travel. Space trash can affect not only critical equipment such as communications satellites, but it can also be problematic for space flights.


G. National space agencies and private satellite and communications companies have an interest in reducing the amount of space trash or so-called debris in orbit. If one organisation removes debris, it will help everyone in space. But because doing so will be complex and very expensive, the best option for anyone of these players is to wait for somebody else to have a go first. That would give them a cleaner space without paying for clearing it up.








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